biology zoology blog benno meyer rochow wings

Reductions and Concentrations

Advantages of having less

One of the most frequent comments I have to scribble on the margin of my students’ essays, assignments and reports is “condense” or “shorten and compress”. It’s exactly what evolution has done (via the survival of the fittest) with certain organs and structures of the animal body. In a way it’s the opposite of what I had written in a different blog about duplications and repetitive structural elements (the million of identical nephrons in the kidney come to mind, the hundreds of identical legs in some millipedes ring a bell and even the dozens of identical teeth in the mouths of dolphins may be remembered). Therefore, how about the opposite? It’s actually easier to find examples for reductions of structural entities in animals and we can almost use examples from the same animal groups mentioned earlier in connection with duplications. —>—>

biology zoology blog benno meyer rochow summerian kids wheel invention

DID ANCIENT SUMERIAN KIDS INVENT THE WHEEL?

On a beach in Goa I once observed tiny sand crabs forming perfectly spherical balls out of sand and depositing them around the entrance of their burrows. Observing Nature is not only fun, it inspires and it is said that the Chinese invented paper by copying what wasps did and that flying machines were invented, because humans observed birds and insects. But where did the first wheel-makers get their inspiration from? What could have “got the ball rolling”? Are there any animals or plants that roll or tumble? —>—>